NPA personality test
Personality Typing Based on Mendelian Genetics
© A.M. Benis, Sc.D., M.D..
Analysis of the NPA test
First a disclaimer: NPA personality theory is not the conventional wisdom of the medical community. The material herein is presented for purposes of information only. The diagnosis and treatment of behavioral disorders should not be attempted without the personal involvement of a licensed health care professional.
If you obtained a display of your NPA character type and numerical results but could not see the bar graphs, make sure that you have the Adobe Flash Player installed. To download the free Adobe Flash Player [click here].
Q. How do I interpret the results of my test?
A. The bar graphs show our evaluation with a computer program, averaging three different statistical methods.
On your test page:
The bar graph at left shows the probability of having the character traits N, P or A. The bar graph at right shows the probability of having that particular character type.
The graphs show how concordant your answers were with our interpretation of the various NPA character types. In particular, the graph at right shows on a relative scale your trends toward N, NP, NA, NPA, PA and A behavior.
Q. What are the three NPA traits?
A. The three traits are: sanguinity, or "narcissism" (N), perfectionism (P) and aggression (A).
Q. What are the NPA character types?
A. The character types are:
S Submissive and Borderline types (lumped)
Submissive and Borderline types include the following:
NA- NA= Narcissistic submissive
NPA- NPA= Narcissistic-perfectionistic submissive
PA- PA= Perfectionistic submissive
A- A= Non-perfectionistic submissive
N- N= Narcissistic borderline
N-P N=P Narcissistic-perfectionistic borderline
Q. Do submissive types lack the trait of aggression?
A. In submissive types the trait of aggression is partially suppressed.
We divide submissive types into:
1. Non-compliant types (one minus sign attached to A, or A-)
2. Compliant types (two minus signs attached to A, or A=)
Non-compliant submissive types (also called "passive-aggressive types") can vary between aggressive and submissive behavior, depending on the circumstances of the moment.
Q. Are there any other categories of character type in NPA theory?
A. Yes. There are also "Resigned types" in which the trait of aggression is stifled in a mature individual. This test does not attempt to identify such individuals, who are relatively uncommon.
Q. What is the S-score?
A. The S score is a measure of anxiety, depression and/or submissiveness in social relations, on a scale of 0-100. If the S score is greater than 20-30 then it becomes more likely that the traits N and/or A are not fully expressed, either because of genetics or environment.
The S-score is used to identify two major categories of character type: 1) Dominant types, and 2) Submissive and Borderline types. The test is interpreted differently for the two categories.
If the S score is in the range 20-60, then we add a minus sign (-) to the notation (non-compliant submissive types).
If the S score is > 60, we would add a double minus sign (=) to the notation (compliant submissive types).
This test does not explore the exact reasons for a high S score. The most common reason in healthy, mature individuals is suppressed aggression (submissive types, as explained above) and suppressed narcissism (narcissistic withdrawn types).
The S-score may also be elevated in NA (narcissistic-aggressive) individuals having a tendency to bipolar behavior.
Q. What is the T score?
The T score is a measure of temperament, again on a scale of 0-100. Introverted, reserved individuals will tend to score low on this scale, while highly extroverted, volatile individuals will tend to score high.
The temperament T score is as follows:
0-10 = very low: reticent 10-20 = low: reserved 20-30 = moderate 30-60 = high: reactive
60-100 = high: volatile
Q. What are typical ranges of the T score for the various character types?
A. They are given below. One should keep in mind that any biological quantity may exhibit "outliers". These are values that because of an unusual factor, or an unusual combination of "usual" factors, lie outside of the normally accepted ranges.
Presence of the P trait tends to reduce the temperament T score. The lowest scores are seen in NPA= and borderline types. The highest scores are seen in NA types. The types having the widest variability of scores are also the NA types.
Q. What is the F score?
The F score, for "focus," is a measure of the degree of organization of an individual's personality, again on a scale of 0-100. Introverted or reserved individuals with analytical tendencies will tend to score high on this scale, while less focused, expansive or practical individuals will tend to score low.
The focus F score is as follows:
0-20 = low: diffuse, expansive
20-70 = moderate: reflective, pragmatic
70-100 = high: contemplative, analytical
Q. What are typical ranges of the F score for the various character types?
A. They are given below.
Individuals lacking the P trait (perfectionism) are unlikely to score higher than a score of 60. The highest scores are seen in NPA= and borderline types, as well as NP and PA dominant types. The lowest scores are seen in individuals who lack the P trait.
Q. What is the A score?
The A score, for "aggression score," is a measure of the degree of overt aggression in relation to the score that would be obtained by a dominant A type. Again, the scale is 0-100. Extroverted individuals having the trait of aggression will tend to score high on this scale, while introverted and submissive individuals will tend to score low.
The aggression A score is as follows:
0-30 = absent, very low 30-50 = low, suppressed 50-70 = moderate to high
70-100 = overt aggression
Q. What are typical ranges of the A score for the various character types?
A. They are given below.
Individuals lacking the A trait (aggression) are unlikely to score higher than a score of 40. The highest scores are seen in dominant NA and A types. The lowest scores are seen in compliant submissive individuals and individuals who lack the A trait.
NA- variable depending on cause
Borderline types 0-30
Q. What is the N score?
The N score, for "narcissism score," is a measure of the degree of unbridled narcissism in relation to the score that would be obtained by an N type. Again, the scale is 0-100. Thus, N individuals, and NA individuals scoring low on the scale of trait aggression, will tend to score high on the N scale, while non-sanguine types (A and PA) will tend to score very low.
Q. What is the E score?
The E score, for "extroversion score," is scaled such that an outgoing, dominant NPA type having a low S score will have an E score of close to 100, while a reticent submissive NPA= type having a high S score will have an E score of close to 0.
Extroversion (or "extraversion") is a measure of an individual's response to other individuals in social situations, while temperament is a more basic measure of an individual's innate reactivity to stimuli. (The genetic bases of extroversion, submissiveness and temperament are thought to be distinct from the genes determining the traits N, P and A.)
Q. How is the test analyzed by computer?
A. Your answers to the questions are compared with the answers that would be expected from the various character type categories. Since the categories of character type are discrete (not continuously varying like the colors of a rainbow), it is usually possible to specify only a single probable character type.
For further explanation of how the test is analyzed, [click here].
Q. Is there any reason why I should retake the test?
A. You may wish to retake the test if you think that your answers may have been too idealistic, more like the "ideal you," rather than the more "realistic you" that other individuals see. Or, if you were in an unusual mood when you took the test, you may wish to retake it to see if the results are significantly different. Also, you may answer the questions differently after you know more about the details of NPA theory.
Q. Can I use the test to gain insight into the personality of another person, for example a friend?
A. Yes. If you know someone very well, you can get an idea of their character type by taking the test "in their place," i.e., answering the questions like you think that he/she would answer them. If you do submit such a test, please indicate that you are doing so in the comment section of the test (for example: "surrogate test: ex-boyfriend").
In addition, on "sheet 3" of the test your friend can answer the same questions that you did, and the computer will compare your answers with those of your friend. The computer output will be a "correlation score" ranging from -100 to +100. On this scale, if the answers of you and your friend tended to coincide, then the score would be positive. If the answers of you and your friend tended to opposite poles, then the result would be negative.
A negative correlation score would not necessarily indicate incompatible personalities: sometimes opposites attract!
Q. Where can I read more about the NPA character types?
A. Caricatures of the character types excerpted from our book are given on our web site. The book (available in eBook and printed versions) gives detailed descriptions that caricaturize the various NPA types types. The descriptions are meant to greatly magnify the specific characteristics, and foibles, of the various types and are not meant to be taken literally. The pejorative aspects of the descriptions may be considered to be the potential "worst" qualities of the various types.
A short test like this one cannot claim to be a definitive analysis of character type, as even within a particular type there can be quite a bit of variation. Nevertheless, this test should point you in the direction of the genetic type that underlies your personality.